Although driver assistance systems are available in the most diverse forms and functional depths, they all have two things in common: They make driving a car safer and more comfortable. Modern sensors such as ultrasound and laser sensors (Lidar sensors) and, of course, surround-view cameras ensure safe distance recognition and also recognition of the driving environment. A (central) control unit processes the data and converts it into signals such as warning beeps, visual messages or even active reactions like braking intervention or acceleration impulses (speeding up). Today these actions usually occur digitally and within a fraction of a second.
The more extensively a driver assistance system engages in the actual driving operation, the more it begins to "virtually" replace the driver (the cue for driverless driving). Even if this only happens consciously in dangerous situations, the question of liability is still being raised. This is where manufacturers are bound by duty to minimize risks and prevent hazards of all kinds. An ethics commission has now embraced this subject and initial framework conditions have already been defined. But the dilemma of this issue still remains controversial. Driving assistance systems can, however, as a rule be switched off by drivers.
Because of the variety of systems available and all the individual solutions offered by different manufacturers, it is impossible to make a general statement as to which sensor system and which sensor generation would be suitable for use in any one particular application. Vehicle manufacturers use the most diverse driver assistance systems, practical combinations and new technologies in all the different vehicle classes. Designations are not always identical and, to a certain extent, manufacturers use their own terminology and abbreviations. It is not possible here to examine all technical details and every single manufacturer.
The calibration of sensors and indeed of cameras is somewhat tricky and this should definitely be carried out by vehicle experts in the workshop. Such tasks demand the relevant diagnostic equipment, the suitable software and also optical calibration apparatus (e.g. the equipment from Hella Gutmann Solutions).
The following overview, appearing in alphabetical order, lists the most common driver assistance systems including short descriptions for each one.