How the air conditioning compressor works
Here you will find useful basic information and handy tips relating to the air conditioning compressor in vehicles.
Important safety note
The following technical information and practical tips have been compiled by HELLA in order to provide professional support to vehicle workshops in their day-to-day work. The information provided on this website is intended for use by suitably qualified personnel only.
The air conditioning compressor is driven by the vehicle engine via a V-ribbed belt or ribbed V-belt. It compresses and transports the refrigerant in the system. There are different types of compressor design.
The refrigerant is sucked in in gaseous form under low pressure and low temperature from the evaporator; it is then compressed and forwarded to the condenser in gaseous form under high temperature and high pressure.
Step-by-step diagnostics for an externally regulated compressor.
It is essential to observe the following points when troubleshooting noise sources and prior to replacing the compressor:
Check all retaining clamps and fixing points for breaks or cracks and any missing nuts or bolts.
Any vibration resulting from this may be the cause of excessive compressor noise. Observe whether the noise changes if you apply force onto the retaining clamps or fixing points using an assembly lever, for example (Figure 1). If the noise changes, the noises are most likely not being caused by the compressor.
Check the hoses and lines to determine whether vibrations from the engine or pulsing refrigerant are being transmitted to the vehicle interior.
For this purpose, hold them with one hand and observe possible changes in the noise (Figure 2).
Check the V-belt, clamping device, tensioner pulleys, alternator freewheel clutch, and pulleys for smooth running, play, and alignment.
Excessive tolerances caused by worn parts can cause noise.
Excessive high pressure (Figure 3) can cause unusual compressor noises.
If the high pressure service connection is located behind a blockage in the system, the high pressure may be higher than that indicated on the manometer. In order to diagnose such a problem, it is useful to measure the temperatures at the condenser.
Excess or contaminated refrigerant causes excessive high pressure, which, in turn, may cause compressor noise.
The same applies to refrigerant where the content of non-condensable gases (air) is too high.
The condenser can also be considered a cause of unusual noise.
If insufficient air is routed through the condenser, the refrigerant cannot sufficiently condense and the high pressure increases excessively. This can result in unusual noises. Therefore, check whether the fan(s) transport(s) sufficient air through the condenser. Check the condenser and radiator fins for possible contamination as well (Figure 4).
Noise can often also be caused by contaminated expansion valves (Figure 5) or throttle valves.
This can be caused by contamination in the form of metal abrasion, for example. This reduces the refrigerant flow and causes excessive high pressure. "Defective" expansion valves can generate various buzzing, whistling, or droning noises, for example, which are clearly audible in the vehicle interior.
This technical clip covers where the noise comes from and how to localise and remedy the fault.
Particles of dirt in the air-conditioning circuit can only be removed by flushing the entire system thoroughly. Depending on the contamination level, refrigerant R134a or a special flushing solution, as provided by Hella Gutmann Solutions, are suitable for flushing. Compressors, dryers (accumulators), expansion valves, and throttle valves cannot be flushed. Since system contamination (abrasion, chips) must always be assumed in the case of a compressor defect and cannot be ruled out, it is absolutely essential that the system be flushed when replacing this component.
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions and instruction leaflets/note the viscosity.
1. Distribution of the oil
There is refrigerant oil in every component of the air-conditioning system. The oil is removed with the replaced component during repairs. It is therefore essential to refill the appropriate quantity of oil. The graphic on the right shows the average distribution of the quantities of oil within the system.
2. Observe the quantity and specification of the oil
Before mounting a new compressor or when refilling refrigerant oil, always check the oil quantity and the viscosity in the vehicle manufacturer’s instructions.
3. Correct quantity of system oil in the compressor
As one and the same compressor can potentially be used for different vehicles or systems, it is essential that the oil filling quantity be checked/corrected before mounting the compressor. For this purpose, all the oil must be siphoned off and collected. The compressor must then be refilled with the entire oil quantity specified by the vehicle manufacturer (system oil quantity). To ensure that the oil is distributed equally, the compressor must be turned 10 times by hand before installation. This also corresponds to
the instructions from the compressor manufacturer Sanden;
specifications from the vehicle manufacturer
must be observed separately in each case.
Every air-conditioning system must be flushed when the compressor is replaced in order to remove contamination and foreign bodies from the system. If there is still contamination in the circuit despite flushing, damage can be prevented by the use of filter screens in the suction line – see the Hella Gutmann Solutions tool catalog.
Run-in specification for the compressor:
Compressor damage is also caused by a lack of refrigerant. It is therefore recommended that the air-conditioning system be maintained regularly and that contrast agent be added to the system if necessary. There are various methods of doing this – see the Hella Gutmann Solutions tool catalog. Document the use of contrast agent in the vehicle. This prevents the system from being overfilled – in extreme cases, overfilling could damage the compressor.